On 26th March 2015, Governor Mike Pence of Indiana declared an emergency in Scott County due to what was being described as the worst HIV outbreak in the state’s history. The cases were all caused by intravenous drug use, but some health officials fear that a rapid, short-term response will not be enough in the face of a large drug abuse problem. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. The virus attacks the immune system, and decreases your ability to fight infections and disease. There are no treatments for people with HIV yet, but researchers are doing their best to develop effective therapies. We already have rather successful disease management programs, based on the control of HIV phase development via chemical medication, so people with HIV are living longer nowadays than ever. However, in the past years scientists start to observe the fact, that HIV patients are more likely to develop other health complications, such as cardiovascular, respiratory or even neurocognitive diseases. More shokingly,these are the most frequent causes of death in HIV patients. Let’s take a closer look on effects, these secondary diagnoses have on HIV-positive patients.